The following flowchart examples can be edited and modified with our flowchart software. To efficiently create a flowchartit is best to start work from the flowchart examples. Now we present some flowchart examples on flowcharting for proper understanding of this technique. A product assembly team in a gaming machine manufacturer were looking for ways of building the products more efficiently. They broke down the assembly process into a set of Flowcharts, showing how sub-assemblies were made and then built into the final product.
Analysis of the reel assembly process revealed two improvements:. Order Workflow Chart. Data Flow Diagram. E-Commerce Flowchart. Business Distribution Flowchart. Recruitment Management Flowchart. Expense Reimbursement Management Flowchart. Salary Management Flowchart. Cross Function Flowchart. Purchasing Flowchart. Sales Management Flowchart. Service Flowchart. Schedule Management Flowchart. Vista Upgrade Flowchart. Transaction Flow Diagram.
Insurance Claim Flowchart. Project Management Flowchart. Order Management Flowchart.Making our projects Wireless always makes it to look cool and also extends the range in which it can be controlled. In this project we will learn how we can build wireless projects using a MHz RF module. These modules are cheap for its functions and are easily available.
Let me give brief intro to these RF modules before getting into the project. A RF transceiver module will always work in a pair that is it needs a Transmitter and Receiver to send and Send data. A transmitter can only send information and a Receiver and can only receive it, so data can always be sent from one end to another and not the other way around.
The Transmitter module consists of three pins namely Vcc, Din and ground as shown above. The Vcc pin has a wide range input voltage from 3V to 12V. The transmitter consumes a minimum current of 9mA and can go as high as 40mA during transmission.
The center pin is the data pin to with the signal to be transmitted is sent. The speed at which it can transmit data is around 10Kbps. The Vcc pin should be powered with a regulated 5V supply. The operating current of this module is less than 5. The pins Dout and Linear out is shorted together to receive the Mhz signal from air.
This signal is then demodulated to get the data and is sent out through the data pin. The RF modules can also function without the need of Encoder and Decoder modules. Simply power on both the modules with the corresponding voltage mentioned above. Now, make the Din pin on transmitter high and you will find the Dout pin on receiver also goes high.
But, there is a big drawback in this method. You can have only one button on the sender side and one output on the receiver side.
This will not help in building better projects, so we employ the encoder and decoder modules. As said they have 4-data bit and 8-addresss bit, these 8 address bits has to be set same on both the encoder and decoder to make them work as a pair.
The complete circuit Diagram including the Transmitter and Receiver part for this project is shown in the images below. Since the transmitter does not need a regulated 5V we have directly powered it with a 9V battery. This means that they are both kept at address 0b This way they both share the same address and they will act as a pair.
When a button is pressed on the encoder side the information will be transferred to decoder and the corresponding light will get toggled. I built the circuits on two individual breadboards both being powered by a separate 9V battery. Once you build them it should look like something as shown in the picture below.
Power both the Breadboards and you should notice that the LEDs will start glowing. Now press any button on the transmitter breadboard and the respective LED will be turned off in the receiver circuit. Hence all the three LEDs will glow and when we press a button the data pin is connected to ground and so the respective LED on receiver side will be turned off.A state diagram shows the behavior of classes in response to external stimuli. Specifically a state diagram describes the behavior of a single object in response to a series of events in a system.
Sometimes it's also known as a Harel state chart or a state machine diagram. This UML diagram models the dynamic flow of control from state to state of a particular object within a system.
A flowchart illustrates processes that are executed in the system that change the state of objects. A state diagram shows the actual changes in state, not the processes or commands that created those changes. Next, think of the states the object might undergo. For example, in e-commerce a product will have a release or available date, a sold out state, a restocked state, placed in cart state, a saved on wish list state, a purchased state, and so on.
Certain transitions will not be applicable when an object is in a particular state, for example a product can be in a purchased state or a saved in cart state if its previous state is sold out.
LED Spinning Top Schematic Circuit Diagram
States States represent situations during the life of an object. You can easily illustrate a state in SmartDraw by using a rectangle with rounded corners. Transition A solid arrow represents the path between different states of an object. Label the transition with the event that triggered it and the action that results from it.
A state can have a transition that points back to itself. Initial State A filled circle followed by an arrow represents the object's initial state. Final State An arrow pointing to a filled circle nested inside another circle represents the object's final state.
Synchronization and Splitting of Control A short heavy bar with two transitions entering it represents a synchronization of control. The first bar is often called a fork where a single transition splits into concurrent multiple transitions.
The second bar is called a join, where the concurrent transitions reduce back to one. Browse SmartDraw's entire collection of state diagram examples and templates. Learn More. State Diagram What is a State Diagram? What is the Difference between a State Diagram and a Flowchart?
How to Draw a State Diagram Before you begin your drawing find the initial and final state of the object in question. Get Started Sign up for SmartDraw free. Works on your Mac or any other device. Follow Us.Ongoing donations help keep the site running. Contribute to this website by clicking the Donate button.
Many thanks to all who have donated. Can't see the video? Complete tutorial 2 and read about integrated circuits. This picture shows a top view of the physical timer IC with pin numbering. Compare it to the schematic symbol.
Plug the timer IC into the breadboard across the middle insulating channel. None of the IC's pins will be shorted out because of the middle insulating channel. Using wire links, connect pin 8 of the IC to the top rail and pin 1 of the IC to the bottom rail. Get a wire link ready to connect between pins 6 and 2 of the IC. Use the wire link to join pin 2 of the IC to pin 6. Get the 10nF capacitor ready and some wire links.
Connect one pin of the 10nF capacitor C2 to pin 5 of the IC and the other pin of the capacitor to the bottom rail. This is done using two wire links in the photo. Get wire links ready to connect pin 4 of the IC to the top rail. Use wire links to connect pin 4 of the IC to the top rail.
In the photo, three links are used to do this. Get resistors R1 4k7 and R2 10k ready.Simple 12v LED Light Controller Circuit
Connect the 10k resistor R2 between pins 6 and 7 of the IC. Connect the 4k7 resistor R1 between pin 7 of the IC and the top rail. Get the uF capacitor ready.A block diagram is a specialized, high-level flowchart used in engineering. It is used to design new systems or to describe and improve existing ones. Its structure provides a high-level overview of major system components, key process participants, and important working relationships.
A block diagram provides a quick, high-level view of a system to rapidly identify points of interest or trouble spots. Because of its high-level perspective, it may not offer the level of detail required for more comprehensive planning or implementation.
A block diagram will not show every wire and switch in detail, that's the job of a circuit diagram. A block diagram is especially focused on the input and output of a system. It cares less about what happens getting from input to output.
This principle is referred to as black box in engineering. Either the parts that get us from input to output are not known or they are not important. Block diagrams are made similar to flowcharts. You will want to create blocks, often represented by rectangular shapes, that represent important points of interest in the system from input to output. Lines connecting the blocks will show the relationship between these components.
In SmartDraw, you'll want to start with a block diagram template that already has the relevant library of block diagram shapes docked. Adding, moving, and deleting shapes is easy in just a few key strokes or drag-and-drop. SmartDraw's block diagram tool will help build your diagram automatically.
Block diagrams use very basic geometric shapes: boxes and circles. The principal parts and functions are represented by blocks connected by straight and segmented lines illustrating relationships.
When block diagrams are used in electrical engineering, the arrows connecting components represent the direction of signal flow through the system. A block diagram can also be drawn in increasing detail if analysis requires it. Feel free to add as little or as much detail as you want using more specific electrical schematic symbols.
Browse SmartDraw's entire collection of block diagram examples and templates.The functionality of LED is as same as normal diode but it emits light when current passes through it.
It is used in most of the electronic circuits as a sign or visual representation to the normal human to know that circuit is working properly. We have lot of applications using LEDs. They are used in advertisement hoarding, Electronic devices, displays, night lamps, etc.
All these circuits have been tested theoretically and published along with Schematics, Circuit Diagrams, Applications, Advantages, Limitations and the detailed explanation about circuit for each of them.
We think these are very useful for many electronics engineering students in selecting the LED based projects and circuits very easily. Using leds one can draw different patterns by moving them in more than one direction. Colour of any object is detected using colour LEDS here.
The Bulb dial Clock Kit : The clock kit presented here uses leds to show the time. Light from the leds indicates the time. Time is displayed by the multi coloured LEDs. Table for Electronic Dreams : The project designed here can detect the electronic gadgets place on it.
The Leds placed on it starts glowing when any elctronic gadget placed on it is activated. This uses 2.
The password is a pattern of colours in a sequence. Here balloons are illuminated with LEDs to make them look more beautiful.
A DIY Project is explained here. The value measured for tachometer was shown on the LED bar graph. The dancing leds presented here will follow the ryhtm of music. This light can work in thunderstrom, snowstroms and in temperatures below c. LED-Zeppelin : This project shows the designing of a game using leds.
The game Zeppeline is named after its inverter. It provides plaesent display while remaining immobile. In our circuit, we use Boolean algebra simplification methods like the Quine-McCluskey algorithm to simplify the Boolean expression and display the output on the display.
By using this circuit, there is no chance to cheat as the circuit operates at such a high speed that the circuit is almost imperceptible to the human eye. It also avoids repeated frequent switching of the devices which is usually ignored in most similar circuits but may have a detrimental effect on our operating devices.
It provides considerable amount of brightness required to do our daily tasks. This circuit can be used for decoration purpose or can be used for a signaling purpose and many more. The basis of the whole circuit is an operational amplifier IC named LM This circuit can also work as an emergency light. It will present an eye catching look as the LED initially travel in the one way and then travel reverse in the similar direction.
This circuit can be mainly used for indication purposes. This is accomplished using a capacitor based power supply. This is a low cost and efficient circuit and can be used at homes. It is based on the principle of driving LEDs using the clock pulses. Two identical circuits are needed, one is for left and the other is for right.
The main heart of this circuit is timer. This flashing action performs continuously. This circuit uses timer and a decade counter. High and Low Voltage Cutoff with Delay and Alarm : This high and low voltage cutoff with delay alarm circuit is an advanced automatic voltage stabilizer circuit and is used to protect our home appliances.In this chapter and Analyzing Starlightwe described some of the characteristics by which we might classify stars and how those are measured.
These ideas are summarized in Table 1. We have also given an example of a relationship between two of these characteristics in the mass-luminosity relation. When the characteristics of large numbers of stars were measured at the beginning of the twentieth century, astronomers were able to begin a deeper search for patterns and relationships in these data.
Measure the spectrum and get the spectral type.
Chemical composition Determine which lines are present in the spectrum. Luminosity Measure the apparent brightness and compensate for distance. Radial velocity Measure the Doppler shift in the spectrum. Rotation Measure the width of spectral lines. Mass Measure the period and radial velocity curves of spectroscopic binary stars. Diameter 1. Measure the light curves and Doppler shifts for eclipsing binary stars.
Figure 1. Height versus Weight: The plot of the heights and weights of a representative group of human beings. If you want to understand humans by comparing and contrasting their characteristics—without assuming any previous knowledge of these strange creatures—you could try to determine which characteristics lead you in a fruitful direction. For example, you might plot the heights of a large sample of humans against their weights which is a measure of their mass.
Such a plot is shown in Figure 1 and it has some interesting features. In the way we have chosen to present our data, height increases upward, whereas weight increases to the left.
Notice that humans are not randomly distributed in the graph. Most points fall along a sequence that goes from the upper left to the lower right. We can conclude from this graph that human height and weight are related.